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Principles of Marxism in Hindi
Marxism is a form of revolutionary socialism. It believes in economic and social equality, hence Marxism is the philosophy of equality of all persons. Marxism was born out of opposition to open competition, free trade and capitalism. Marxism mandates violent revolution to radically change the capitalist system and establish a socialist system of the proletariat, only after this revolution will the ideal system be established, which will be a classless, conflict less and exploitation-free state.
Salient Features of Marxism
- Marxism is a reaction against capitalism.
- Marxism uses violent means to destroy the capitalist system.
- Marxism considers the democratic institution as the institution of the capitalists, which has been made for their benefit and for the exploitation of the workers.
- Marxism is also anti-religion and has called religion the opium of mankind. Whose drunkenness keeps on sleeping.
- Marxism believes in International Communism.
- Class struggle is inevitable between the rulers in the society or the state and the capitalists and workers among the exploited.
- Marxism explains the birth of capitalism through the theory of surplus value.
Major Principles of Marxism:
Theory of Dialectical Materialism
Dialectical materialism is the basic basis of Marx’s ideas, Marx has adopted the dialectical system from Hegel. To understand Marx’s dialectic, it is necessary to know Hegel’s ideas. In Hegel’s thoughts, the whole world is dynamic and it is constantly changing. In Heigl’s views, history is not just a sequence of events, but has discussed three stages of development – 1. Argument 2 Response 3 Dialogue. Hegel’s belief that even an idea is an argument in its original state. After some time, the opposition of that idea arises, as a result of this struggle, the fundamental idea of the argument is changed, due to the opposition of the opposition, a new idea arises which brings the debate.
Economic materialist interpretation of history
Like dialectical materialism in Marx’s ideology, the principle of economic interpretation of history is also important. In Marx’s view, all the events of history are only the result of changes in the economic condition. Marx is of the opinion that in every country and in every period, all political, social institutions, art, customs and all life are influenced by physical conditions and economic elements.
Theory of Class Struggle
Marx’s other theory is the theory of class struggle. Marx has said that the history of all societies so far has been the history of class struggle. The nobles and the common man, the Sardar and the Surveyor’s Sanghpati and the workers are constantly standing in opposition to each other. The struggle between them continues at a relentless pace. Marx has concluded from this that in modern times the workers will organize against capitalism and end the capitalist system and the dictatorship of the proletariat will be established.
Theory of Surplus Value
Marx has discussed the theory of surplus value in his book Das Capital. Marx believes that the capitalist, by not giving them their proper remuneration, grabs the entire benefit of their labor by itself. In other words, the value of a commodity is determined by the labor that is put into the production of that commodity, which requires more labor. Its value is high and the production of which less labor is required, its value is less. Thus Marx thinks that the real value of a commodity is that which is equal to the labor expended on it, but when that commodity is sold in the market it fetches a higher value.
Authoritarianism of the Proletariat: – Marx says that according to the theory of dialectical materialism, there is bound to be a conflict in the capitalist class due to the inherent contradictory nature of the capitalist system.
Classless and stateless society
Marx says that as soon as the capitalist class will come to an end and all the remnants of the capitalist system will be destroyed, the justification for the existence of the state will also end and it will wither away (thestate will wither away). ). When all the people of the society will come to one level, then each person will do maximum work for the whole society and in return will fulfill all his needs freely. Public works will be accomplished through various social organizations in this society. In such a classless and stateless society, there will be complete absence of class-specific class exploitation and individuals will follow the social rules in general.
Significance of Marxism or arguments
Despite the various criticisms of Marxism, its importance cannot be denied. Today, Marxism has changed the nature of the whole world, taking the side of the victims, the oppressed and the workers, Marxism has provided a solid and scientific basis to socialism for the neglected human welfare. his main contribution
- Scientific Philosophy – Marxism is also called scientific socialism, never tried to give scientific basis to Marx’s complete socialist theories. The credit for starting this work goes to Marx.
- Emphasis on practicality rather than theoretical – The main reason for the popularity of Marxism is its practicality. Many of its beliefs were used in Russia and China, which also got complete success.
- Strengthening the condition of the working class – The biggest contribution of Marxism is to give rise to class consciousness and unity in the working class. to improve their condition. Marx gave the slogan “Workers of the world unite, you have only chains to lose and the whole world to win.” “These slogans of Marx achieved unparalleled success in creating consciousness among the working class.
- Shedding light on the defects of capitalist system – According to Marxism, there is always a struggle going on in the society between the exploited and the exploited. The exploiting or capitalist class is always worried about making its own profit. For this, he keeps on exploiting the workers and consumers in various ways. As a result the capitalists become more capitalists and poorer and poorer. Hunger and unemployment increase in the society. So on the other hand, without removing these defects of the capitalist system, ideal society cannot be established.
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