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|File name||Effects of Climate Change PDF|
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|Date Added||Apr 23, 2023|
Overview of Effects of Climate Change
Everyone must be aware of the impact of climate change as it is a very serious topic. Today, due to climate change, the lives of problem animals including humans are in danger. However, the biggest and main cause of climate change is humans themselves.
Due to the effect of climate change, not only the cycle of movement of seasons has been affected, but many types of rare animals and animals have become extinct and many are on the verge of extinction. If you want to get more detailed information regarding the impact of climate change, then carefully study the pdf given in this article.
Climate plays an important role in determining the living conditions, food habits, agricultural economy etc. of a particular nation. About 60 percent of the people in India depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Presently the whole world including India is grappling with the problem of climate change. Many changes are taking place in the environment, such as increase in temperature, decrease in rainfall, change in the direction of winds, etc. effects are visible.
What is climate change?
Climate is the average of long-term meteorological conditions of a particular place, such as atmospheric pressure, humidity, temperature, etc. The climate generally remains stable, but at present, changes are being seen in the local and global climate due to human and natural causes, which is called climate change.These changes seen in the climate are the result of a long period of time, which is not only seeing regional and global effects, but the whole world is being affected by climate change.
What are the evidences of climate change:
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the average temperature of the Northern Hemisphere in the second half of the 20th century was significantly higher than in the previous 500 years.The cryosphere continues to shrink. The rate of ice melting in Antarctica has tripled in the last decade. The past century has seen a rise in global sea level of about 8 inches. The acidification of the oceans also confirms this. In fact, the amount of CO2 absorbed by the upper layer of the oceans is increasing by about 2 billion tons per year. India’s temperature has increased by about 2°C from the year 1900 to the present.
Causes of climate change:
- Climate change is happening due to both natural and human factors, in which human factors contribute more.
- The following human activities can be seen in human causes.
- The increase in the emission of green house gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, sulfur dioxide etc. is one of the main reasons for the increase in the average temperature of the earth.
- Change in land use is also responsible for this as it has increased the albedo of the surface.
- Apart from this, activities like deforestation, animal husbandry, increase in agriculture, use of nitrogenous fertilizers in agriculture etc. are also responsible for climate change.
- Natural causes include changes in solar radiation, tectonic movements, volcanic eruptions, etc.
- In fact, the main cause of climate change is global warming, for which green house gases (GHGs) are mainly responsible.
Impact of climate change on agriculture
- Climate change has negatively affected agriculture on a large scale.
- It is noteworthy that most of India’s agriculture is rain-fed, on which the uncertainty of monsoon remains. Climate change has made the monsoon more uncertain. Along with this, due to the abnormal distribution of rainfall, flood-like conditions are being seen at some places and drought-like situations at other places.
- Apart from this, floods in Northeast India, cyclone in East Coastal areas, drought in North-West, increase in frequency and intensity of heat waves in Central and Northern areas.
- Decrease in soil moisture and increase in intensity of infection of pests and diseases.
- Due to increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, deficiency of protein and other essential elements has been observed in most of the food crops like wheat, rice, soybean.
- Due to climate change, the intensity of heat waves has not only increased the vulnerability of animals to diseases but also reduced fertility and milk production. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), India has lost about 125 million tonnes of food grain production till the year 2015.
- According to one estimate, by the year 2100, the intensity of the Indian summer monsoon may increase by only 10 percent.
- According to the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), wheat production is reduced by 4-5 million tonnes for every 1°C rise in temperature.
- Due to extreme heat, the yield of wheat in the Indo-Gangetic plains can decrease by up to 51 percent.
- Agricultural production is being negatively affected due to the decrease in the number of pollinating insects such as butterflies, bees due to climate change.
Impact of climate change on economy
A 1°C increase in temperature could reduce the economic growth of middle-income emerging markets by 0.9% a year. Middle- and low-income economies will be most affected by climate change. According to one estimate, the cost of mitigating climate change as a result of climate change may be about 5–20% of annual global GDP.
According to a World Bank report, climate change could push 45 million Indians into extreme poverty in 15 years, hindering economic progress. Rising ocean temperatures can pose a threat to coral reefs. Significantly, coral reefs produce an estimated $375 billion annually in the form of goods and services. Climate change will increase income inequality, as well as increase migration at the national, international level.
Efforts made at national and international level to reduce and prevent the effects of climate change:
Some of the recent initiatives at the global level-
The Paris Climate Agreement came into existence in the year 2015, whose major provisions are as follows-
- Limiting warming to 2°C above pre-industrial levels and striving to further limit it to 1.5°C.
- $100 billion to be made available by developed countries to developing countries.
- The action plan was adopted for the first time at COP-23 of the United Nations Framework on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
- International Solar Alliance was established.
- COP-25 committed to implement the provisions of the Paris Agreement.
India’s Green Action
- By the end of the year 2022, India had set a target of 175 GW of renewable energy capacity, which was announced by the Indian Prime Minister to increase it to 450 GW.
- Operation of eight missions of the National Action Plan on Climate Change.
- Declaration of India’s Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC).
- To achieve about 40% of electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel based resources by the year 2030.
- To create a carbon sink of 2.5-3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent by 2030.
- Apart from this, efforts are being made by conducting schemes like environmental impact assessment, national afforestation program, green skill development program, promotion of organic agriculture etc.
The methods and techniques of sustainable development should be given priority. There is a need to promote research and development in the related field. At the same time, India also needs to develop indigenous green technology. We need to make conservation of earth and its resources a part of lifestyle by putting it into practice. Nature takes care of us. In return, we have to give priority to the care and protection of nature.