Download 12th Chemistry Guide PDF
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|12th Chemistry Guide PDF
|No. of Pages
|June 18, 2023
|Education & Job
12th Chemistry Overview
Chemistry, being a fundamental branch of science, plays a crucial role in connecting various other scientific disciplines such as astronomy, physical science, material science, biology, and geology. Its primary focus is on the study of atoms, ions, and molecules, which are the building blocks of elements and compounds. Chemistry explores the composition, structure, properties of substances, and the changes that occur during chemical reactions. It delves into the interactions and bonding between chemical species. The term “chemistry” itself derives from “juice” and “ion,” indicating the study of liquids. Additionally, chemistry investigates atoms, molecules, and crystalline structures of substances, along with the energy involved in chemical processes. Furthermore, an essential aspect of chemistry is the examination of the relationship between matter and energy.
Chapter 1: The Solid State
This chapter explains the general characteristics of solid state, crystal lattice, classification of solids, imperfections in solids and unit cell. Matter is of three states – solid, liquid and gas. Solids are again divided into – Crystalline and Amorphous. Crystalline has a definite shape, whereas amorphous has no form. NCERT Solutions is a perfect guide to acquire a firm grip over these concepts. To strengthen the concepts further, students can also access the NCERT Exemplar Solutions which are available at BYJU’S.
Chapter 2: Solutions
A solution is a mixture of two or more components. This chapter helps students to understand the concentration of solutions, types of solutions, the vapour pressure of liquid solutions, solubility of gases and solids in a liquid, ideal and non ideal solutions and Raoult’s Law. Various problems based on finding the molarity, mole fraction, mass percentage and Henry’s Law constant are also present here. These problems are not only important for the Class 12 exams but also are of higher importance in competitive exams like JEE Mains, JEE Advanced etc.
Chapter 3: Electrochemistry
Electrochemistry is defined as the branch of Chemistry which deals with the relationship between electrical and chemical energy produced in a redox reaction and their conversion. The concepts which are covered in this chapter are – electrochemical cells, Galvanic cells, Nernst equation, conductance of electrolytic solutions, electrolytic cells and electrolysis, batteries, fuel cells and corrosion. Students who are not able to solve the numerical problems can also refer to the NCERT Solutions and answer them effortlessly.
Chapter 4: Chemical Kinetics
This chapter will provide you with a good understanding of the rate of chemical reaction, Arrhenius equation, dependence on the rate of reaction and collision theory of chemical reaction. Chemical Kinetics is a branch of Chemistry which deals with the rate of chemical reaction, the factors affecting it and the mechanism of the reaction. We have 3 types in accordance to the rate of reaction – Instantaneous reactions, Slow reactions and Moderately Slow reactions.
Chapter 5: Surface Chemistry
Surface chemistry deals with important features like catalysis, adsorption and colloids which comprises gel and emulsion. After going through this chapter, students will understand the interfacial phenomenon and its significance, adsorption and its classification, mechanism of adsorption and the factors controlling adsorption. Further solving the textbook questions along with previous year question papers will boost the exam preparation of CBSE students.
Chapter 6: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Metallurgy is a scientific and technological process which is followed to isolate the metal from its ores. Apart from explaining the processes and reactions of metal extraction, students will also learn about the fundamental principles and developments which would occur in this field. Aluminium is the most abundant metal which is found on the earth’s crust which is 8.3% by weight. So cleaning the ore, i.e., removal of particles like clay, sand etc., is known as concentration or dressing of the ore.
Chapter 7: The p-Block Elements
The history of the p-block elements has a history which takes us back to the 19th century. Group 13, 14, 15, 16, 17 and 18 elements are known as p-block elements. They exist in three physical states – metal, non metal and metalloids. For a better clarification of these concepts, students can refer to the NCERT Solutions available at BYJU’S. The clear explanation of each and every concept will help students attain good marks in the final exam.
Chapter 8: The d- and f-Block Elements
The elements which are lying between the s and p-block elements are called as d-block or transition elements. The inner transition series are called as f-block elements. This chapter introduces concepts such as the general properties of transition elements, variation in ionic and atomic size of transition metals, physical properties, ionization enthalpies, magnetic properties and oxidation states. Students will get a clear idea about the electronic configuration, general characteristics and properties of important compounds in this chapter.
Chapter 9: Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds is a challenging area in the modern inorganic chemistry. In this chapter, students will be able to learn about Werner’s Theory of Coordination Compounds, definitions of important terms, nomenclature, isomerism, bonding, stability, importance and applications of coordination compounds. They will also study about the bonding in meta carbonyls which is important for the exams. These concepts are important for CBSE exams and competitive exams so more importance should be given when it comes to scoring marks.
Chapter 10: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
The halogen derivatives of hydrocarbons are called haloalkanes. They are classified based on the number of hydrogen atoms present in them. The aromatic compounds in which the halogens are attached directly to the carbon atom of the aromatic ring are called haloarenes. In this chapter, students will also get an idea about the methods of preparation, chemical and physical properties and the organohalogen compounds uses. The reactions involved in the preparation of haloarenes and haloalkanes are explained clearly in this chapter to help students perform well in the exams.
Chapter 11: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
The classification of alcohols and phenols are based on the number of -OH groups present. Compounds which have one -OH group are called monohydride alcohols and phenols. The compounds which have two, three or more -OH groups are called dihydric, trihydric or polyhydric alcohols and phenols. Students will study about the reactions involved in the process of making alcohols from phenols, alcohols and ethers. It will also help students to learn about the physical properties of alcohols, phenols and ethers.
Chapter 12: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
In organic chemistry, aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids are of utmost importance. Aldehydes and Ketones can be obtained by the hydration of alkynes, ozonolysis of alkenes and by the oxidation of alcohols. Carboxylic acids can be obtained by the oxidation of aldehydes or primary alcohols. This chapter is very important and carries more marks in the board exam. For this purpose, students have to learn all the concepts and revise them on a regular basis for a good score.
Chapter 13: Amines
The derivatives of ammonia are amines which are obtained by the replacement of hydrogen. From this chapter, students will be able to understand the nomenclature, structure and properties of amines. Amines are an important organic compound which contains nitrogen. Numerous examples of determining the basicity of amines, the reaction and synthesis of amines are explained briefly in this chapter. Students will obtain a good hold on these concepts by answering the questions present at the end of the chapter.
Chapter 14: Biomolecules
The organic compounds which are present as essential constituents in different cells of the living organism are called biomolecules. These include proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, enzymes and nucleic acids. The interaction of biomolecules constitute the molecular logic of life processes. Simple molecules such as mineral salts and vitamins play an important role in the function of organisms. The structure and functions of the biomolecules are covered in this chapter as per the latest CBSE guidelines.
Chapter 15: Polymers
This chapter includes the concepts like – monomer, polymer and polymerisation. Its classification is based on the source, structure and polymerisation. The types of polymerisation are – addition polymerisation and condensation polymerisation. The important concepts of this chapter are explained clearly in the NCERT textbook. Students who aspire to score good marks in the exams are recommended to learn this chapter thoroughly and have a clear idea of these concepts.
Chapter 16: Chemistry in Everyday Life
The sphere of human life is influenced by Chemistry. The principles of Chemistry have benefitted humans in a lot of ways. The concepts which are discussed in this chapter are – drugs and their classification, drug target interaction, the therapeutic action of different classes of drugs, chemicals in food and cleansing agents. Chemistry is a tough subject, and it requires lots of practice to remember the chemical reactions and formulas