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|File name||Jallianwala Bagh Hatyakand Hindi PDF|
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|Date Added||Apr 14, 2023|
Overview of Jallianwala Bagh Hatyakand
The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, also known as the Amritsar Massacre, is one of the most tragic events in history. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre was such a heart-wrenching incident that put humanity to shame. On 13 April 1919, some people had gathered peacefully at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar to celebrate the festival.
Journal Dyer, a cruel officer of the British government, had given instructions to fire on the crowd and thousands of Indian innocents were killed mercilessly. According to the accounts described by historians, many people jumped into a well located in Jallianwala Bagh to escape the crowd that day, due to which they died.
Summary of Jallianwala Bagh Hatyakand
- To quell the disturbance, martial law was imposed in the area and a British military officer, General Dyer, was entrusted with the task of dealing with the situation. Dyer issued a proclamation on April 13, 1919, saying that people should not leave the city without a pass and that more than three people should not gather together.
- On 13 April, the day of Vaisakhi, a group of people unaware of Dyer’s announcement gathered at Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar to celebrate Vaisakhi. Some local leaders had also organized a protest meeting at the same place.
- During this, the protest and the festival was going on peacefully. Two resolutions were passed on the occasion regarding the repeal of the Rowlatt Act and condemnation of the firing on 10 April. But General Dyer, considering this meeting to be a violation of the government order, fired bullets on the people gathered there without any prior warning and closed all the routes of evacuation from there.
- About 1000 people died due to this ruthless repression by the British government. People of all ages included youth, women, old people, children among those who died during this period.
- The whole country was stunned by this brazen and infamous Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
- It was an act more painful than the cruelty of a predatory animal to its prey.
- This barbaric massacre was condemned in the whole country.
Consequences of Jallianwala Bagh Massacre or reaction against it
- Rabindranath Tagore renounced his knighthood in protest against the Jallianwala Bagh massacre. In addition, Shankararam Nagar, an Indian member of the Viceroy’s executive, resigned from the executive.
- Before the incident of this infamous massacre, Satyagraha was being conducted peacefully at all places, but after this massacre, Satyagrahis at many places in the country abandoned non-violence and adopted the path of violence.
- Because of this, Gandhiji had announced the end of Satyagraha on April 18, 1919 because Gandhiji was of the opinion that there is no place for violence in Satyagraha. A historian A.P.J. Taylor wrote about the incident of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre that “The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre was such a turning point in Indian history that after this the people of India separated from the British rule.”After this infamous massacre, Udham Singh, a nationalist revolutionary, decided to take revenge on the British officer responsible for it and changed his name to Ram Mohammad Singh Azad.
- In fact, the Punjab protests in 1919 were brutally suppressed by Lieutenant Governor Michael O’Dwyer. Udham Singh went to Britain to take revenge on which British officer and there he killed Lieutenant Governor Michael O’Dwyer. Due to this crime, the British government convicted Udham Singh and hanged him in the year 1940.
- In the year 1974, the ashes of nationalist revolutionary Udham Singh were brought to India by the Government of India.
Jallianwala Bagh Massacre Investigation
The then India Secretary Edwin Montague constituted a commission of inquiry under the chairmanship of William Hunter to investigate the Jallianwala Bagh massacre incident. That’s why the gestures are popularly known as ‘Hunter Commission’. The official name of this commission constituted by the British Government on October 14, 1919 was ‘Disorder Inquiry Committee’.The basic objective of this commission was to investigate the reasons for the violent incidents that took place in Bombay, Delhi and Punjab and to suggest measures to deal with them. Three Indian members were also included in the Hunter Commission set up to investigate the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
The three Indian members included in this commission were Sir Chimanlal Harilal Setalvad, Vice-Chancellor of Bombay University and advocate of the Bombay High Court, Pandit Jagat Narayan, a member of the Legislative Council of the United Provinces and advocate, and Sardar Sahibzada Sultan Ahmed Khan, advocate of Gwalior State.The Hunter Commission, which submitted its report to the British Government, condemned Dyer’s act, but did not recommend any punitive or disciplinary action against him. Apart from this, the British government had also passed the ‘Indemnity Act’ to provide security to its officers. This act was called ‘White Washing Bill’. The Act was strongly criticized by other leaders including Motilal Nehru.